The flash floods due to the burst of a synthetic lake created by an enormous landslide (rock, frozen mud and ice) in Rishi Ganga, inside Nanda Devi Sanctuary, is the latest warning given by the Himalayas to the blind supporters of “growth” in the fragile mountains. The lack of lives, property and initiatives is immense. It’s estimated at greater than Rs 4,000 crore. As well as, two bridges have additionally been misplaced.
In accordance to Planet Labs, ice together with frozen mud and rocks fell down from a excessive mountain inside the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, from a top of 5,600 m to 3,300 m. This created a synthetic lake inside the sanctuary in Rontigad, a tributary of Rishi Ganga. Inside eight hours, this lake burst open and its water, laden with mud and stones, rushed by the Rishi Ganga gorge which opens close to Reni. That is the identical village the place Gaura Devi and her sisters saved their forest in 1974 throughout the Chipko motion.
Research say that the present winter season has seen little rain and snow, with temperatures being highest in the final six a long time. Winter forest fires are additionally indicative of this temperature shift. So, the results of chemical weathering had been rather more lively in the larger Himalayas. There’s a chance of extra such occasions this yr. Additionally it is to be famous that Rishi Ganga has had a historical past of comparable devastations. There was a lake burst in Rishi Ganga in 1968. One other lake generally known as Barital was created in Rishi Ganga and burst at the time of the 1970 Alaknanda floods. Actually, this sample could be seen in a number of different larger Himalayan rivers.
As a mountain system, the Himalayas have had earthquakes, avalanches, landslides, soil erosion, forest fires and floods, and these are its pure expressions, elements of its being. Apart from earthquakes, people have instantly contributed in the direction of aggravating all the different phenomena. Now the so-called growth actions (roads, dams, barrages, tunnels), for which extra applicable and much less damaging strategies, applied sciences and guidelines can be found however not adopted, have elevated the damaging powers of the above calamities.
After we do not permit a river to movement and as an alternative construct huge dams on it; once we do not let a forest stay in its pure habitat enjoying its financial and ecological position; once we construct roads towards all indicators of Himalayan fragility with dynamiting and “dig and throw” technique, the land, forests and rivers begin behaving in a different way. One other issue which cannot be missed is that of local weather change. Research have prompt that the tempo of this alteration is quicker in mountains and quickest in the Himalayas. Whereas earthquakes and weathering work at their very own tempo, local weather change can contribute in the direction of altering their pure velocity.
If we name the occasions which passed off inside the Rishi Ganga gorge “pure”, then we now have to settle for that what the river did with the Rishi Ganga and Tapovan-Vishnugad initiatives, bridges and practically 300 staff, native herders, their cattle and fields is “artifical”. The massive displacement of soil, silt, and stones in the river ground compels the raging river to behave in a different way. Furthermore, frequent individuals to whom growth is promised turn into victims of it. If we do not rethink this sample, we may have to relive this previous in future additionally.
Folks protested towards the Vishnu Ganga challenge, which was additionally devastated in the 2013 floods and rebuilt. The individuals of Reni protested towards the Rishi Ganga challenge, properly conscious of the river’s flood historical past. They even went to the Uttarakhand Excessive Court docket. The Supreme Court docket of India (SC) and the Uttarakhand Excessive Court docket gave judgments towards the building of dams in the interior Himalayas. The Ravi Chopra committee shaped by the SC really helpful closure of all the 24 hydro initiatives in query by Wildlife Institute of India. The SC additionally shaped one other committee to have a look at the affect of the Chaardham highway challenge. Nonetheless, the politician, babu and contractor foyer opposed it. The SC has not but pressured the governments to implement its suggestions totally.
This calamity cannot be seen in isolation. Street and hydro initiatives are being operated in the Himalayas with virtually no rigorous analysis on the ecological historical past of the space, cost-benefit evaluation and many different facets together with displacement of communities, destruction of biodiversity, agricultural land, pastures in addition to the cultural heritage of the space. Earlier, whereas impartial consultants carried out the Environmental Impression Evaluation (EIA), immediately it’s assigned to a authorities company, which does the work for different authorities departments. Moreover, throughout the lockdown, the authorities modified the EIA guidelines and diluted labour legal guidelines (most of the staff in each the affected initiatives belong to unorganised sector) in the identify of pandemic measures. For the first time in our nation’s historical past, the Ministry of Setting has proven no real interest in atmosphere and conservation and as an alternative advocates the reason for corporates.
If we now have some braveness and honesty, we will look again at the horrible calamity of 2013, and see the way it washed away not solely the encroachments in river areas (dams, barrages, tunnels, buildings, roads) but in addition the myths of growth. The communities paid a a lot heavier value than what they obtained in compensation. Additional, the 2013 calamity has to be studied and understood in all the different areas and river valleys of Uttarakhand, Western Nepal and Himachal. It was not particular to Kedarnath, though a lot of the focus was directed there. It was a a lot bigger tragedy. Until date, we don’t have any white paper on this calamity. The India Meteorological Division failed in its prediction and wrongly introduced at the finish of the first week of June that the monsoon will attain Uttarakhand by June 27-28. It reached on June 16-17 with 300-400 per cent extra rain, a file by no means heard of earlier than. Consequently, the loss of life toll and scale of destruction was additionally unprecedented.
In 2013, 24 huge and small hydro initiatives had been destroyed. The muck created by these initiatives was additionally the reason for their destruction. The highway particles, at all times dumped in rivers, was one other trigger. The smaller rivers had been extra aggressive in 2013. As an illustration, the Vishnu Prayag Undertaking was destroyed by the mixed energy of Khiron Gad and Pushpawati; NHPC challenge at Ailagad by Dhauli (east) and Aila gad. Equally, hydro initiatives in Saryu and Asi Ganga (each non-glacial rivers) valleys had been additionally destroyed.
Any obstruction in the river-bed will increase the energy of the river. In such a scenario, out of the 4 parts of a river (water, silt, energy and all types of riverine life), the first two have a tendency to dominate and dictate the surrounding and downstream areas.
Folks do not need to threat their houses, fields, pastures, forests and rivers in the identify of growth. Most of such growth work in the Himalayas is being carried out with out an understanding of its fragility, seismicity, glacial behaviour, climatic adjustments and their collective damaging energy. The Himalayas have been giving us life by water, fertile soil, biodiversity, wilderness and a really feel of spirituality. We cannot and should not try to control or dictate the Himalayas.
The author is a historian and environmentalist; his latest work on Chipko motion was printed in Hindi and English